A copy by T. W. Downes (as a book illustration) of an original artwork by J. A. Gilfillan of the mouth of the Waikanae River showing a fenced pa (Kenakena) with several buildings. The large building with peaked roof is believed to be the first Maori Missionary church built by Bishop Octavius Hadfield. Kapiti Island is in the background.
According to evidence given in the Native Land Court (Otaki Minute Book 10, Ngarara Hearing. 1890) the Kenakena pa, which stood at the mouth of the Waikanae river, was built by the Ngati Toa chiefs Te Rangihiroa and Te Hiko o te Rangi after the tribe consolidated their position on the Kapiti coast following their historic migration from Kawhia. The Ngati Toa later settled Te Ati Awa at Waikanae and it was during this period that the Kenakena pa and surrounding district was associated with Wi Kingi Te Rangitaake (aka Te Whiti). (National Library)