The phonograph which played wax cylinders was invented by Thomas Edison in 1877 but flat 78 rpm records, which some readers may remember, replaced them in the 1890s. They were in turn replaced by the 33 1/3 rpm 12″ (305 mm) LP records in the 1950s made of polyvinyl chloride. These lasted until the late 1980s when the 5″ (127 mm) CD laser disc replaced them — but not completely. There is a small but significant number of people who prefer the sound from vinyl (less harsh) than digital CDs and these are still made.
Above in the pic are some 16″ (406 mm) discs that were used for radio broadcasts.
Info on records since the early days on the wikipedia page.