The woman kneeling on the lower right is 20-year-old Stella, Eva’s mother.

With the Nazis steadily retreating on both the Western and Eastern Fronts during World War II in July 1944, inhabitants of the city of Warsaw in Poland took it upon themselves to defeat the German occupiers and on 1 August began a fierce battle which lasted for 2 months.

The Poles expected assistance from the nearby Soviet troops but received none — Stalin figured (correctly) that those who didn’t like Hitler’s regime weren’t going to like his either, so why not just let the Nazis do his dirty work for him?

News of the German surrender in Paris on 26 August provided a boost to morale, but the situation in Poland was different. In Paris, Waffen-SS troops had no interest in helping the Wehrmacht defend the city and pulled out ahead of the Allied advance. But attitudes by the Nazis towards the Poles were negative to start with and these were intensified.

Eventually, overwhelmed by superior forces, the Poles had no choice but to surrender, on the basis that the combattants were to be treated as Prisoners of War, which included Eva’s mother. That didn’t prevent massacres of civilians and the destruction on SS-chief Himmler’s orders of a large part of the city before the Germans retreated in January 1945.

There is a museum in Warsaw dedicated to the uprising.

Wikipedia page with more info